Author Archives: sentrallab

Progesteron (Prog)

Engelsk navn:Progesteron
Analyseinstrument:IMMULITE®2000
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Progesterone is a solidphase, competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.
For detailed description: IMMULITE® 2000; Principles of operation

(Metoden tatt i bruk: 8/3-04)

Referanse:1.Aufrere MB, Benson H. Progesterone: an overview and recent advances. JPharm Sci 1976; 65:783-800.
2.Bauman J. Basal body temperature: unreliable method of ovulation detection. Fertil Steril 1981; 36:729-33.
3.Brown JB. Timing of ovulation. Med J Austral 1977; ii:780-83.
4.Gautray JP, et al. Clinical investigation of the menstrual cycle: clinical, endometrial and endocrine aspects of luteal defect. Fertil Steril 1981; 35:296-303.
5.Hensleigh PA, Fainstat T. Corpus luteum dysfunction: serum progesterone levels in diagnosis and assessment of therapy for recurrent and threatened abortion. Fertil Steril 1979; 32:396-9.
6.Hernandez Horta JL, et al. Direct evidence of luteal insufficiency in women with habitual abortion. Obstet Gynecol 1977; 49:705-8.
7.Jones G. Luteal phase defects. In: Behrman SJ, Kistner RW, editors. Progress in infertility. Boston: Little & Brown, 2nd Edition, 1975: 299-324.
8.Klopper A, Fuchs F. Progestagens. In: Fuchs F, Klopper A, editors. Endocrinology of pregnancy. Hagerstown: Harper & Row, 1977: 99-122.
9.Lehmann F, Bettendorf G. The endocrine shift from a normal cycle to anovulation. In: Insler V, Bettendorf G, editors. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland, 1981: 105-13.
10.March CM. Luteal phase defects. In: Mishell DR, Davajan V, editors. Reproductive endocrinology, infertility and contraception. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1979:469-76.
11.March CM, Goebelsmann U, Nakamura RM and Mishell DR. Roles of estradiol and progesterone in eliciting the midcycle luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone surges. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979; 49:507-13.
12.Progesterone (Rochester: Bioeducational Publications, 1981). A BIO-ED slide/seminar educational program.
13.Radwanska E, et al. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol estimations in the diagnosis and treatment of luteal insufficiency in menstruating infertile women. Acta Eur Fertil 1976; 7:39-47.
14.Radwanska E, et al. Plasma progesterone levels in normal and abnormal early human pregnancy. Fertil Steril 1978; 30:398-402.
15.Radwanska E, et al. Single midluteal progesterone assay in the management of ovulatory infertility. J Reprod Med 1981; 26:85-89.
16.Sheehan KL, Casper RF, Yen SSC. Luteal phase defects induced by an agonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing factor: a model for fertility control. Science 1982; 215:170-72.
17.Wentz A. Pathophysiology of luteal phase inadequacy. In: Tozzini RI, Reeves G and Pineda RL, editors. Endocrine physiopathology of the ovary. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland, 1980, 257-74.
18.Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, editors. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1994.
19.Hilborn S, Krahn J.Effect of time of exposure to gel-barrier tubes on results for progesterone and some other endocrine tests. Clin Chem 1987; 33:204.
20.Reimers TJ, et al. Effect of storage times and temperature on T3, T4, LH, prolactin, insulin, cortisol, and progesterone concentrations in blood samples from cows. J Anim Sci 1983; 57:683-691.
21.Smith RL. Effect of serum-separating gels on progesterone assays. Clin Chem 1985; 31:1239.
22.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture; approved standard. 4th ed. NCCLS Document H3-A4, Wayne, PA: NCCLS, 1998.
23.Vankrieken L. IMMULITE reproductive hormone assays: multicenter reference range data. Los Angeles: Diagnostic Products Corporation, 2000. Document No. ZB157-D.

Osmolalitet (Osmol)

Engelsk navn:Osmolality
Analyseinstrument:Fiske 110 Osmometer
Reagensprodusent:Fiske®Associates
Analyseprinsipp:Freezing point osmometry measures the total solute concentration in a liquid. It is most convenient to describe freezing point as the concentration of particles in solution. Freezing point won’t tell you how big these particles are, or what shape they have, or if they are charged. It will tell you how many you have. At low concentrations, freezing point is linear with the number of dissolved particles
The freezing-point method is used by Fiske Osmometer.(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1996)
Referanse:Micciche K., Utilization of controls, materials and osmometry in a clinical setting offers quality benefits, Clinical Lab Products, May 2003; Volume 32, Number 5: Page 28.

Natrium (Na)

Engelsk navn:Sodium
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Ion Selective Electrode (ISE), diluted
This method is based on an indirect potentiometric procedure using an ion selective electrode. The sodium ion selective electrode responds selectively to sodium ions according to the Nernst equation.
The sample is mixed with ISE buffer, thereby providing a constant pH and a constant ionic strength solution. As the buffered sample is moved through the ion selective electrode, changes in the electrical potential take place. These electrical potential changes are measured against the potential of a reference electrode in order to derive the correct analogue value for that sample.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Eisenman G: Glass Electrodes for Hydrogen and Other Cations, Principles and Practise. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc., p 2 (1967)
2.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 610-611 (1995)

Magnesium (Mg)

Engelsk navn:Magnesium
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Xylidyl Blue
Magnesium ions reacts with xylidyl blue in an alkaline medium to form a water soluble purple-red chelate. The increase in absorbance of xylidyl blue at 505 nm is proportional to the concentration of magnesium in the sample.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Mann CK and Yoe JH: Spectophotometric determination of magnesium with sodium 1-azo-2-hydroxy-3-
(2,4 dimethylcarboxanilido)-naphthalene-1′-(2-hydroxybenzene-
5-sulfonate). Anal Chem 28: 202-205 (1956)
2.Mann CK and Yoe JH: Spectophotometric determination of magnesium with 1-azo-2-hydroxy-3- (2,4 dimethylcarboxanilido)-naphthalene-1′-(2-hydroxybenzene). Anal Chim Acta 16:
155-160 (1957)
3.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 418-419 (1995)
4.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Precision performance of clinical chemistry devices; Approved Guideline- Second Edition. Wayne, PA: NCCLS; 1999. NCCLS Document EP5-A.

Lipase (Lip)

Engelsk navn:Lipase
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Colorimetric rate
The chromogenic lipase substrate, DGGMR, (1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester) is cleaved by the catalytic action of lipase to form 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycerol and an unstable intermediate, glutaric acid-(6′-methyl resorufin) ester. This decomposes spontaneously in an alkaline solution to form glutaric acid and methylresorufin. The lipase activity in the specimen is proportional to the production of methylresorufin in the reaction and is determined spectrophotometrically at 571 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 12.01.10)
Referanse:1.Tietz NW. Lipase in serum-the elusive enzyme: An overview. Clin Chem 39:746-756 (1993).
2.Steinberg WM, Goldstein SS, Davies ND, et al. Diagnostic assays in acute pancreatitis. (Review). Ann Intern Med 102:576-580 (1985).
3.Leybold A, Junge W. Importance of colipase for the measurement of serum lipase activity. Adv clin Enzymol 4:60-67 (1986).
4.Young, D.S., Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests, AACC Press, Washington, Third Edition, 1990.
5.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS). Evaluation of Precision Performance of Quantitative Measurement Methods; Approved Guideline – Second Edition. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2004. NCCLS Document EP05-A2.

Laktat dehydrogenase (LD)

Engelsk navn:Lactate Dehydrogenase
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Enzymatio (L-P) / TRIS / NAD+-NADH
LD catalyses the conversion of L-Lactate to pyruvate in the presence of NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). The enzymatic activity of LD is proportional to the rate of production of NADH (reduced NAD). The amount of NADH produced is determined by measuring the increase of absorbance at 340 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 26/04-05)
Referanse:1.Amador E, Dorfman LE and Wacker WE : Serum lactic dehydrogenase activity: an analytical assessment of current assays. Clin Chem 9: 391 (1963)
2.Richards AH, Lubibski RM and Vanderlinde RE: Studies on the kinetic assay of lactate dehydrogenase activity.
Clin Chem 21: 1018 (1975)
3.Wahlenfield AW: UV-method with L-lactate and NAD. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Volume III, 3rd edition HU Bergmeyer, ed, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim (1983)
4.Tietz NW: Textbook of Clinical Chemistry.
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA p 710 (1990)
5.Lum G and Gambino SR: A comparison of serum versus heparinized plasma for routine laboratory tests.
AM J Clin Pathol 61: 108-113 (1974)
6.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 384-385 (1995)

Laktat (Lakt)

Engelsk navn:Lactate
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Roche
Analyseprinsipp:Enzymatic/Trinder
First, lactate is converted to pyruvate in an enzymatic reaction. The hydrogen peroxide produced by this reaction is then used in an enzymatic reaction to generate a coloured dye. The intensity of the colour formed is proportional to the L-lactate concentration and is measured as an endpoint reaction at 658 nm.
Referanse:1.Gutmann I, Wahlefeld A : Methods of Enzymatic Analysis.
2nd ed. Bergmeyer HU (ed). Academic Press Inc, New York NY 1464 (1974).
2.Noll F : Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. 2nd ed. Bergmeyer HU (ed). Academic Press Inc, New York NY 1475 (1974).
3.Trinder P: Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Ann Clin Biochem 6: 24(1969).
4.4. Barhan D, Trinder P : An improved colour reagent for the
determination of blood glucose by the oxidase system. Analyst 97:142 (1972)
5.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 382-383 (1995)
6.Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical
Chemistry. 2nd ed. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA p 976 (1994).
7.Westgard JO, Lahmeyer BL, Birnbaum ML : Clin Chem. 18: 1334-1338 (1972).
8.Data on file at Roche Diagnostics.
9.Passing H, Bablok W: A New Biometrical Procedure for
Testing the Equality of Measurements from Two Different
Analytical Methods: J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 21: 709-720 (1983)
10.Bablok W et al: A General Regression Procedure for Method
Transformation: J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 26: 783-790 (1988)

Kreatinin (Kreat)

Engelsk navn:Creatinine
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Jaffe, kinetic
The creatinine reacts with the alkaline picric acid and forms a coloured complex. The rate of complex formation is measured at 505 nm and is proportional to the creatinine concentration.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Jaffe MZ: Über den Niederschlag, welchen Pikrinsaure in normalem Harn erzeugt and über eine Reaction des Kreatinins.
Zeitschrift Für Physologische Chemie 10: 391-400 (1886) (Ger)
2.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 186-187 (1995)

Kreatin Kinase (CK)

Engelsk navn:Creatine Kinase
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:NAC activated (DGKC)
Creatine Kinase reacts with creatine phosphate and ADP to form ATP which is coupled to the hexokinase-GPD reaction, generating NADPH. The concentration of NADPH is measured by the increase in absorbance at 340 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Recommendations of the German Society for Clinical Chemistry Standard Method for the Determination of Creatine Kinase Activity Revised Draft of 1976. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 15:
255-260 (1977)
2.Szasz G, Gruber W and Bernt E: Creatine Kinase in serum:
Determination of optimum reaction conditions. Clin Chem
22: 650-656 (1976)
3.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 180-181 (1995)

Kolesterol (Kol)

Engelsk navn:Cholesterol
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Enzymatic/Trinder
The cholesterol esters are hydrolysed by cholesterol esterase to cholesterol and free fatty acids. The cholesterol is converted to cholesterol-3-one by cholesterol oxidase in the presence of oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide. A coloured complex is formed from hydrogen peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine and phenol under the catalytic influence of peroxidase. The absorbance of the complex is measured as an endpoint reaction at 505 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Richmond W: Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. And its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem 19: 1350-1356 (1973)
2.Roeschlau P, Bernt E and Gruber WJ: Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem Clin Biochem 12(5): 226 (1974)
3.Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CSG, Richmond W and Fu PC:
Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol.
Clin Chem 20: 470 (1974)
4.Trinder P: Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Ann Clin Biochem 6: 24-27 (1969)
5.National Cholesterol Education Program. Report of expert panel detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892. Arch Int Med 148: 36-69 (1988)