Category Archives: Metoder

Kolesterol (Kol)

Engelsk navn:Cholesterol
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Enzymatic/Trinder
The cholesterol esters are hydrolysed by cholesterol esterase to cholesterol and free fatty acids. The cholesterol is converted to cholesterol-3-one by cholesterol oxidase in the presence of oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide. A coloured complex is formed from hydrogen peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine and phenol under the catalytic influence of peroxidase. The absorbance of the complex is measured as an endpoint reaction at 505 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Richmond W: Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. And its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem 19: 1350-1356 (1973)
2.Roeschlau P, Bernt E and Gruber WJ: Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem Clin Biochem 12(5): 226 (1974)
3.Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CSG, Richmond W and Fu PC:
Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol.
Clin Chem 20: 470 (1974)
4.Trinder P: Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Ann Clin Biochem 6: 24-27 (1969)
5.National Cholesterol Education Program. Report of expert panel detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892. Arch Int Med 148: 36-69 (1988)

Klor (Cl)

Engelsk navn:Chloride
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Ion Selective Electrode (ISE), diluted
This method is based on an indirect potentiometric procedure using an ion selective electrode (ISE). The chloride ion selective electrode responds selectively to chloride ions according to the Nernst equation.
The sample is mixed with ISE buffer, thereby providing a constant pH and a constant ionic strength solution. As the buffered sample is moved through the ion selective electrode, changes in the electrical potential take place. These electrical potential changes are measured against the potential of a reference electrode in order to derive the correct analogue value for that sample.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Eisenman G: Glass Electrodes for Hydrogen and Other Cations, Principles and Practise. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc., p 2 (1967)
2.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 610-611 (1995)

Kalium (K)

Engelsk navn:Potassium
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Ion Selective Electrode (ISE), diluted
This method is based on an indirect potentiometric procedure using an ion selective electrode (ISE). The potassium ion selective electrode responds selectively to potassium ions according to the Nernst equation.
The sample is mixed with ISE buffer, thereby providing a constant pH and a constant ionic strength solution. As the buffered sample is moved through the ion selective electrode, changes in the electrical potential take place. These electrical potential changes are measured against the potential of a reference electrode in order to derive the correct analogue value for that sample.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Eisenman G: Glass Electrodes for Hydrogen and Other Cations, Principles and Practise. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc., p 2 (1967)
2.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 610-611 (1995)

Kalsium (Ca)

Engelsk navn:Calcium
Analyseinstrument:ADVIA®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA
Analyseprinsipp:Arsenazo III
Calcium ions form a colored complex with Arsenazo III, which is measured at 658/694
nm. The amount of calcium present in the sample is directly proportional to the intensity
of the colored complex formed.
(Ny metode 20/6-06)
Referanse:1.Michaylova V, Illkova P. Anal Chem Acta. 1971; 53:194.
2.Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests. 3rd ed. Washington:
AACC Press (1990).
3.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS). Evaluation of
Precision Performance of Quantitative Measurement Methods; Approved
Guideline – Second Edition. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards
Institute; 2004. NCCLS Document EP05-A2.
4.Data on file.
5.Tietz NW. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. Third Edition. Philadelphia, PA:
WB Saunders Company; 1995:102-105.

Jern (Fe)

Engelsk navn:Iron
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Ferrozine
Ferric iron is dissociated from its carrier protein, transferrin, in an acid medium and simultaneously reduced to the ferrous form. The ferrous iron is then complexed with the ferrozine, a sensitive iron indicator, to produce a colored chromophore which absorbs maximally at 571 nm.(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse:1.Artiss JD, Vinogradov S and Zak B: Spectrophotometric study of several sensitivity reagents for serum iron.
Clin Biochem 14(6): 311-315 (1981)
2.Siedel J: Improved Ferrozine® based reagent for the determination of serum iron (transferrin iron) without deproteinization.
Clin Chem 30(6): 975 (1984)
3.Young DS, Pestaner LC, Gibberman V. Effect of drugs on clinical laboratory tests, Clin Chem. 1975; 21:5:1D-432D.
4.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA p.374 (1995)
5.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Precision performance of clinical chemistry devices; Approved Guideline-Second Edition. Wayne, PA: NCCLS; 1999. NCCLS Document EP5-A.

Glutamat-dehydrogenase (GD)

Engelsk navn:Glutamate Dehydrogenase
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Randox
Analyseprinsipp:DGKC / NADH – NAD+
This is an optimised standard method according to the recommendations of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Klinische Chemie (DGKC). This procedure measures the non-specific creep. As NADH is oxidised, the decrease in the absorbance is measured at 340nm and is proportional to the GD activity.(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse :1.Schmidt, E and Schmidt, F.W. In: Methode of Enzymatic Analysis 3rd ed. H,K, Bergmeyer, J. Bergmeyer, and M. Grosse, Eds. Weirheim, Verlag Chemie, 1983, 3:216-227.
2.In: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests 2nd ed. N.W. Tietz, Eds. W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia 1990 p.260.
3.Schmidt, E. et al (1992) Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 30 pp 493-502

Glukose (Glu)

Engelsk navn:Glucose
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Hexokinase
The glucose is phosphorylated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of hexokinase. The glucose-6- phosphate that forms is oxidized in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase causing the reduction of NAD to NADH. The absorbance of NADH is measured as an endpoint reaction at 340 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 25/11-02)
Referanse :1.Slein MW: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Bergmeyer HU, ed.
Academic Press, New York NY pp 1196-1201 (1974)
2.Slein MW, Cori GT and Cori CF: A comparative study of hexokinase from yeast and animal tissues.
J Biol Chem 186: 763-780 (1950)
3.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition
WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 268-269 (1995)

Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)

Engelsk navn:Gamma-glutamyl transferase
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
Analyseprinsipp:Modified IFCC
In the reaction with synthetic substrate (L-γ-glutamyl-3-carboxy-4-nitroanilide), glycylglycine acts as an acceptor for the gamma-glutamyl residue and 5-amino-2-nitro-benzoate (ANB) is liberated. The liberated product has an absorption maximum near 400 nm; the rate of formation is measured photometrically at 410 nm as a zero-order kinetic assay.(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse :1.L.M. Shaw, J.H. Strømme, J.L. Loudon, and L. Theodosen: IFCC Methods for the Measurement of Catalytic Concentration of Enzymes. Part 4 IFCC Method for γ-Glutamyltransferase. J.Clin Chem. Biochem 21:633 – 646 (1983)
2.Tietz, NW: Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA pp 286-287 (1995)

Gallesyrer (GS)

Engelsk navn:Total Bile Acids
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:
Analyseprinsipp:Enzymatic amplification / Thio-NAD – Thio-NADH
In the presence of Thio-NAD, the enzyme 3-α hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-α HSD) converts bile acids to 3-keto steroids and Thio-NADH. The reaction is reversible and 3-α HSD can convert 3-keto steroids and Thio-NADH to bile acids and Thio-NAD. In the presence of excess NADH, the enzyme cycling occurs efficiently and the rate of formation of Thio-NADH is determined by measuring specific change of absorbance at 410nm.(Metoden tatt i bruk: 18/8-05)

Fruktosamin (Fruc)

Engelsk navn:Fructosamine
Analyseinstrument:Advia®1800
Reagensprodusent:
Analyseprinsipp:Nitrotetrazolium-blue (NBT)
This colorimetric assay is based on the ability of ketoamines to reduce NBT to formazan in an alkaline medium. The rate of formazan formation is directly proportional to the fructosamine concentration. The reaction rate is measured at 546 nm.
(Metoden tatt i bruk: 1/7-01)
Referanse :1.Armbruster DA: Clin Chem 33: 2153-2163 (1987)
2.Furth AJ: Anal Biochem 175: 347-360 (1988)
3.Johnson RN, Metcalf PA, Baker JR : Clin Chim Acta 127: 87-95 (1983).
4.Tahara Y, Shima K : Diabetes Care 18: 440-447 (1995)
5.Martina WV, Martijn EG, van der Molen M, Schermer JG,
Muskiet FAJ : Clin Chem 39: 2259-2265 (1993)
6.Kruse-Jarres JD, Jarausch J, Lehmann P, Vogt BW, Rietz P:
Lab Med 13: 245-253 (1989)
7.Guder WG, Narayanan S, Wisser H, Zawta B : List of
Analytes Preanalytical Variables. Broschure im Samples: From the Patient to the Laboratory. Darmstadt: GIT Verlag 1996
8.Schleicher ED, Vogt BW: Clin Chem 36: 136-139 (1990)
9.Glick MR, Ryder KW, Jackson SA : Graphical Comparisons of
Interferences in Clinical Chemistry Instrumentation:
Clin Chem 32: 470-474 (1986)
10.Melzi d’Eril GV, Bosoni T, Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Ferrari E:
Wien Klin Wochenschr Suppl 180: 60-63 (1990)
11.Henrichs HR (ed): European Fructosamine Workshop:
Wien Klin Wochenschr Suppl 180 (1990)
12.Schleicher ED, Olgemöller B, Wiedenmann E, Gerbitz KD:
Clin Chem 39: 625-628 (1993)
13.Passing H, Bablok W: A New Biometrical Procedure for
Testing the Equality of Measurements from Two Different
Analytical Methods: J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 21: 709-720 (1983)
14.Bablok W et al: A General Regression Procedure for Method
Transformation: J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 26: 783-790 (1988)